EDUC-6125-4 – Annotated Bibliography

APA Citation:

Wagner, N., Hassanein, K., Head, M., (2010). Computer use by older adults: A multi-disciplinary review. Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 26, No. 5. (22 September 2010), pp. 870-882.

Summary:

“As the populations of most of the world’s developed nations experience an increase in average age, a similar trend is being observed in the population of computer and Internet users. In many cases, older adults are the fastest growing computer and Internet user group in both personal and workplace contexts. However, the needs and concerns of older adults as computer users differ from those of younger users as a result of the natural changes associated with the aging process. Much research has been conducted in a variety of fields in order to understand how these changes experienced by older adults impact their use of computers and the Internet. This article reviews this existing research and provides a holistic view of the field. Since the study of computer use by older adults is a multi-disciplinary topic by nature, we provide a synthesis of the findings across these many disciplines, and attempt to highlight any gaps that exist. We use Social Cognitive Theory as a lens to view and organize the literature, as well as illustrate means through which computer use by this user group can be encouraged. Finally, suggestions for future research are proposed, and implications for research and practice are discussed.” (Wagner, Hassanein, Head, 2010)

Rationale for Inclusion in Literature Review:

This literature review directly connects to the question of motivational influences on the adoption of technology among older adults in that it presents a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary review of the contemporary body of research specifically and singularly focused on the adoption of technology by older adults. The literature review is extensive, the methods used in the review are empirical and the review provides citations from an extensive list of references from investigators with proven track records. The citations and references from this literature review serve as a point of reference for evaluating other.

This is not a research study but rather, a research review; as such, values for validity and reliability are not represented.

APA Citation:

Melenhorst, A.S., Rogers, W.A., Bouwhuis, D.G., (2006). Older Adults’ Motivated Choice for Technological Innovation: Evidence for Benefit-Driven Selectivity. Psychology and Aging, Vol. 21, No. 1. (March 2006), pp. 190-195.

Summary:

“This study examined older adults’ motivation to adopt technological innovation. Sixty-eight older e-mail users and nonusers discussed the use of e-mail and of traditional communication methods in 18 focus groups. The results show older adults’ benefit-driven approach to new communication technology. Regardless of whether their decision about the new technology was positive or negative and irrespective of their e-mail experience, participants focused on benefits rather than costs. For traditional media, both costs and benefits were important. Results contradict the common belief that barriers such as usability problems determine whether older people use new technology and indicate the decisive role of perceived benefits for successful innovation.” (Melenhorst, Rogers, Bouwhuis, 2006)

Rationale for Inclusion in Literature Review:

This research study presents findings that specifically suggest motivational factors do influence older adults to adopt technology. Although the study is limited in scope to e-mail technologies, it is none-the-less appropriate; it offers empirical study and data analysis of various motivational factors that influence adoption of technology.

Values for validity and reliability are premised on earlier research by the author.  Specifically, values for validity and reliability come from the examination of statistical differences between groups and between goals, through repeated measures of multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs).

The study is appropriate for ethnically diverse, independently living male and female older adults in the age range from 65 to 80.

APA Citation:

Melenhorst, A., Bouwhuis, D., (2004). When do older adults consider the internet? An exploratory study of benefit perception.  Gerontechjournal, Vol. 3, No. 2. (2004), pp. 90-101.

Summary:

“Perceptions and experiences of both usability and usefulness can motivate or discourage older adults to use the internet. The present study explores older adults’ perceptions of internet usefulness, or benefit. Thirty older internet users and non-users aged 60-74 years evaluated traditional media and internet applications for different communication purposes in their everyday lives. The participants were divided into three groups with different levels of experience. Both the amount of internet experience and the goal of the communication seemed to have affected their judgments. Experienced users valued internet applications more highly than less- and non-experienced users, in general. However, both users and non-users of the internet mentioned merits of the internet depending on the goal of the communication and the establishment of the medium in one’s social environment. The goal-dependent differentiation of media evaluations within each of the three groups suggested a benefit-driven approach of media by older adults.” (Melenhorst, Bouwhuis, 2004)

Rationale for Inclusion in Literature Review:

This (unpublished) research study operates from the expectation “that participants would appreciate the internet to a different extent for different goals” (Melenhorst, Bouwhuis, 2004), a direct connection to the question of motivational influences on the adoption of technology among older adults. Also, the findings of this dissertation underlie premises presented in other resources utilized in the present literature review.

Values for validity and reliability come from the examination of statistical differences between groups and between goals, through repeated measures of multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs).

The study is appropriate for ethnically diverse, independently living male and female older adults in the age range from 65 to 75.

APA Citation:

Hanson, V.L., (2010). Influencing technology adoption by older adults. Interacting with Computers, Vol. 22. No. 6. (November 2010), pp. 502-509.

Summary:

“With the advent of a digital economy, an emphasis on digital products and services has emerged. Those who are not using current technologies will become excluded, however, from this revolution. Older adults represent one such group in danger of Exclusion. In some cases, older adults have been disinterested in new technologies. In other cases, however, the technologies fail to take into consideration the strengths and weaknesses of older users that would promote this usability. This paper examines components of information search by younger and older adults. These are considered in terms of long-term implications of designing for older users, with current problems viewed as foreshadowing future trends.” (Hanson, 2010)

Rationale for Inclusion in Literature Review:

This research paper connects directly to the question of design strategies proscribed by motivational factors leading to successful adoption of technology among older adults by virtue of its interest in long-term implications of designing for older users.

Values for validity and reliability come from an analysis of variance (ANOVA).

The study is appropriate for ethnically diverse, independently living male and female older adults over 60 and utilizes a control group of younger adults between 18 and 30.

APA Citation:

Ng, Chi-hung., (2008). Motivation among older adults in learning computer technologies: A grounded model. EducationalGerontology, Vol. 34, No. 1 (2008), pp. 1-14.

Summary:

“Based on a sociocultural perspective, this study investigated the learning experiences of a selected group of older adults learning computing technologies at a social center in Hong Kong. Data generated from in-depth interviews were used to develop a model of evolving motivation that explains how this group of ‘‘anxious novices’’ had gradually developed into ‘‘motivated experts’’ capable of showcasing their computing achievement to the public. The model highlights the significance of social supports derived from various social contexts in helping older adults make sense of their learning and develop lasting interest in computing technologies.” (Ng, 2008)

Rationale for Inclusion in Literature Review:

This literature review directly connects to the question of motivational influences on the adoption of technology among older adults.

This is not a research study but a research review; as such, values for validity and reliability are not represented.

The study is appropriate for ethnically diverse, independently living male and female older adults in the age range from 65 to 75.

 References:

Hanson, V.L., (2010). Influencing technology adoption by older adults. Interacting with Computers, Vol. 22. No. 6. (November 2010), pp. 502-509.

Melenhorst, A., Bouwhuis, D., (2004). When do older adults consider the internet? An exploratory study of benefit perception. Gerontechjournal, Vol. 3, No. 2. (2004), pp. 90-101.

Melenhorst, A.S., Rogers, W.A., Bouwhuis, D.G., (2006). Older Adults’ Motivated Choice for Technological Innovation: Evidence for Benefit-Driven Selectivity. Psychology and Aging, Vol. 21, No. 1. (March 2006), pp. 190-195.

Ng, Chi-hung., (2008). Motivation among older adults in learning computer technologies: A grounded model. Educational Gerontology, Vol. 34, No. 1 (2008), pp. 1-14.

Wagner, N., Hassanein, K., Head, M., (2010). Computer use by older adults: A multi-disciplinary review. Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 26, No. 5. (22 September 2010), pp. 870-882.

EDUC-6125-4 – Problem Statement

Problem Statement

The motivational factors that drive older adults (age 65 or older) to learn to use a computer may have an influence on success and adoption, and consequently may inform instructional design strategy selection.

Contextual Background of Literature Review

Older adults who are new to computers seem to respond in one of two ways – they respond well; once they are past the initial learning curve and have developed some confidence, they’re off and running, or they respond poorly; they never seem to get out of the gate, they remain anxious, agonizing over taking the simplest action, and never seem to master the mouse or the most fundamental tasks. This research review is concerned with whether there is a relationship between motivational factors and success/adoption.

“Although it is widely perceived that older adults should be making more use of information and communications technology (ICT), academic studies in this area have been limited, especially from a sociological perspective. We still know little, for example, about the reasons and motivations underlying older adults’ adoption or nonadoption of ICTs.” (Selwyn, 2004) “The study of motivational factors in older adults’ technology use has received little scientific attention.”  (Melenhorst, 2006) At the same time, “the successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence.” (Czaja, 2006)

It is hoped the findings of this research review will serve to inform the design of computer literacy training programs at assisted living facilities. Since these facilities are focused on maintaining the health and wellness of residents through continued independence, and because it is widely agreed (although beyond the scope of this research review) that access to technology and the internet fosters independence, the results of this research review seem particularly relevant to the mission of those involved in providing assisted living services.

Context of Literature Review

A research review will be conducted to investigate a possible causal relationship between motivational factors such as a desire for information, a desire for social connection, a desire to play games, or a desire to simplify life tasks, and the adoption of technology among older adults.

Research Questions

The research review will be concerned with identifying motivational factors that yield the highest rate of success in the adoption of technology among older adults and with identifying best instructional design strategies proscribed by those motivational factors. For the purpose of this review, motivational factors are specifically defined to be intrinsic (toward knowledge via learning, exploring, or trying to understand something new), extrinsic (toward accomplishment of things such as improving one’s skills in a betting activity), and amotivation (toward stimulation or excitement) (Clarke, 2007) and include such motivators as the desire for a place for social networking with family and friends; a source for health and other information; a place for commercial purposes, such as purchasing goods or managing finances; and a place for entertainment and travel planning

Scope of Literature Review

This literature review will be limited to research conducted on the topic within the past ten years. It will focus specifically on computer/technology adoption among adult learners age 65 and older.

References

Clake, D. & Clarkson, J. (2007). A Preliminary Investigation into Motivational Factors Associated with Older AdultsProblem Gambling. International Journal of Mental Health & Addiction, Vol. 7, No. 1. (Jan2009), pp.12-28.

Czaja et al., 2006 S.J. Czaja, N. Charness, A.D. Fisk, C. Hertzog, S.N. Nair and W.A. Rogers et al., Factors predicting the use of technology: Findings from the center for research and education on aging and technology enhancement (CREATE), Psychology and Aging, Vol. 21, No. 2. (June 2006), pp. 333-35

Dawidowicz, P. (2008). Literature reviews made easy: A quick guide to success. Bloomington, IN: ISES Press/Positive Change Publishing, 9-19

Locke, L. F., Silverman, S. J., & Spirduso, W. W. (2010). Reading and understanding research (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage  Publications, Inc.

Melenhorst, A.S., Rogers, W.A., Bouwhuis, D.G., (2006). Older Adults’ Motivated Choice for Technological Innovation: Evidence for Benefit-Driven Selectivity. Psychology and Aging, Vol. 21, No. 1. (March 2006), pp. 190-195.

Patton, M. (n.d.). Purposes of Research. Lecture presented for Laureate Education, Inc. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from: http://sylvan.live.ecollege.com/ec/crs/default.learn?CourseID=5089752&Survey=1&47=7867857&ClientNodeID=984650&coursenav=1&bhcp=1

Selwyn, N. (2004). The information aged: A qualitative study of older adults’ use of information and communications technology. Journal of Aging Studies, Vol. 18, No. 4. (November 2004), pp. 369-384.