EDUC-6135 – Week 3 – Distance Learning Technologies – Application

Collaborative Training Environment

A new automated staff information system was recently purchased by a major corporation and needs to be implemented in six regional offices. Unfortunately, the staff is located throughout all the different offices and cannot meet at the same time or in the same location. As an instructional designer for the corporation, you have been charged with implementing a training workshop for these offices. As part of the training, you were advised how imperative it is that the staff members share information, in the form of screen captures and documents, and participate in ongoing collaboration.


To deliver the Collaborative Training Environment I would employ Power Point to record the presentation of the new automated staff information system, Microsoft Live Meeting, Cisco WebEx, Citrix GotoMeeting or other Web X (Boulton, 2009) to deliver the presentation live, and a Wiki for document sharing for screen shots and collaboration.

Web conferencing is “ideal for project reviews, employee training (especially for regulatory compliance), prospective employee interviews, contract negotiations, and keeping in touch with resources” (Heck, 2005, p. 23).

 “A wiki is a collection of Web pages that are linked to each other, and reflect the collaborative works of many authors” (Beldarrain, 2006, 142). “Wikis are designed to facilitate the exchange of information within and between teams. Their power comes from the fact that content can be updated without any real lag, administrative effort, or need for distribution; users simply visit and update a common Web site. Wikis can centralize all types of business data, such as spreadsheets, Word documents, PowerPoint slides-anything that can be displayed in a browser. They can also embed various standard communications media such as E-mail and instant messaging…The functionality of a wiki is limited only by the programming skills of the person who implements and maintains it. (Goodnoe, 2005, p. 54)

Today’s workplace, as in the collaborative training environment scenario, requires that individuals create and collaborate within the constraints of time and place (Beldarrain, 2006, p. 150). Web conferencing and Wikis in combination provide the combination of tools that enables exactly this type collaboration.

“In a Web conference, each participant sits at their own computer and is connected to other participants thru Internet” (Boulton, 2009).

References:
Beldarrain, Y. (2006). Distance education trends: Integrating new technologies to foster student interaction and collaboration. Distance Education, 27(2),139–153

Boulton, C., (2009). eWeek, January 5, 2009, Vol. 26 Issue 1, p14-16

Goodnoe, E., (2005). Informationweek, August 29, 2005, Issue 1053, p54-58

Heck, Mike. InfoWorld, 5/9/2005, Vol. 27 Issue 19, p24-29

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EDUC-6135 – Distance Education Defined

Distance Education Defined

Before starting this program I had several years of experience as an online distance learner at the graduate level, I had created, led and participated in many remote corporate training sessions, and I had taken many Computer Based Training classes, both online and via CD. As a result, I understood distance education from the perspective of the learner and to mean the consumption of education at a distance, with the consumer (learner) being at a distance from the source of the education. Resources this week have influenced my personal definition of distance education by reminding me that distance education encompasses any “institution-based formal education where the learning group is separated” (Simonson, 2008).

Because learners are separated from each other, from their instructor and from the resources that form the content of their education, technology must function as the connecting glue. Tools to facilitate communication and collaboration, tools to deliver content in engaging ways, tools for course management, and tools to evaluate instructional design and learner performance, all work together to create the distance education experience. A revised definition of distance education, then, would be the delivery, through technology, of institution-based formal education from a distributed group of providers for consumption by a distributed group of learners, connected to each other through technology.

My vision for the future of distance learning as it continues on a path of evolution and change is an exciting one. As advances in communications and information race forward, I imagine corresponding exponential growth in technology and the tools available to support distance education. For the consumer, advances in mobile technology, in readers, IPads, Wikis, Course Management Systems, Web 3.0, and the tools that are just beyond our reach will have dramatic influences on the effectiveness and affordability of Distance Education.  Current trends in the field of distance education indicate a shift in perspectives and frameworks, with student interaction at the heart of learner-centered environments (Beldarrain, 2006). This means the advancement of MMORPGs and Augmented Reality as viable elements of Distance Education. For the provider, schools might be open all day and all year, with groups of students rotating in and out of session.  Classrooms might include students of different ages. A multi-disciplinary approach toward teaching will result in longer-term projects that cut across disciplines, combining the subject matter of previously separate classes. Multiple choice tests will be replaced by new kinds of assessments that measure the acquisition of higher-order skills. (Bingham, n.d.).

I am in agreement with Bingham’s vision: “These new models of learning foster communities of lifelong learners, where intellect and cooperation are valued. Within these communities, decisions will be made by those in the best position to make them – by students, teachers, and educational administrators… As distance learning technologies become more powerful and plentiful, and as the needs of society more urgently call for a new model of education, American schools will be caught in the irresistible forces of change (National Academy of Sciences, 1996).

Mind Map of Distance Education

Mind Map

Mind Map

Beldarrain, Y., (2006). Distance Education Trends: Integrating new technologies to foster student interaction and collaboration. Distance Education, Vol. 27, No. 2. (August 2006), pp. 139-153.

Bingham, J., Davis, T., Moore, C., (n.d.). Emerging Technologies in Distance Learning. Retrieved July 3, 2011 from http://horizon.unc.edu/projects/issues/papers/Distance_Learning.asp

National Academy of Sciences, (1996, February 22). Reinventing schools: The technology is now! A new model for education [WWW document].

Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., & Zvacek, S. (2009). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education (4th ed.)

EIDT-6120 – Course Project

EIDT-6110 – Logo 101 Learning Module – Interactive

Logo101_Instructional

EDUC-6115 – Learning Theories Matrix

Learning Theories Matrix

EDUC 6105 Course Project – Organization and Change

Course Project – Organization and Change

EDUC-6125-4 – Annotated Bibliography

APA Citation:

Wagner, N., Hassanein, K., Head, M., (2010). Computer use by older adults: A multi-disciplinary review. Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 26, No. 5. (22 September 2010), pp. 870-882.

Summary:

“As the populations of most of the world’s developed nations experience an increase in average age, a similar trend is being observed in the population of computer and Internet users. In many cases, older adults are the fastest growing computer and Internet user group in both personal and workplace contexts. However, the needs and concerns of older adults as computer users differ from those of younger users as a result of the natural changes associated with the aging process. Much research has been conducted in a variety of fields in order to understand how these changes experienced by older adults impact their use of computers and the Internet. This article reviews this existing research and provides a holistic view of the field. Since the study of computer use by older adults is a multi-disciplinary topic by nature, we provide a synthesis of the findings across these many disciplines, and attempt to highlight any gaps that exist. We use Social Cognitive Theory as a lens to view and organize the literature, as well as illustrate means through which computer use by this user group can be encouraged. Finally, suggestions for future research are proposed, and implications for research and practice are discussed.” (Wagner, Hassanein, Head, 2010)

Rationale for Inclusion in Literature Review:

This literature review directly connects to the question of motivational influences on the adoption of technology among older adults in that it presents a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary review of the contemporary body of research specifically and singularly focused on the adoption of technology by older adults. The literature review is extensive, the methods used in the review are empirical and the review provides citations from an extensive list of references from investigators with proven track records. The citations and references from this literature review serve as a point of reference for evaluating other.

This is not a research study but rather, a research review; as such, values for validity and reliability are not represented.

APA Citation:

Melenhorst, A.S., Rogers, W.A., Bouwhuis, D.G., (2006). Older Adults’ Motivated Choice for Technological Innovation: Evidence for Benefit-Driven Selectivity. Psychology and Aging, Vol. 21, No. 1. (March 2006), pp. 190-195.

Summary:

“This study examined older adults’ motivation to adopt technological innovation. Sixty-eight older e-mail users and nonusers discussed the use of e-mail and of traditional communication methods in 18 focus groups. The results show older adults’ benefit-driven approach to new communication technology. Regardless of whether their decision about the new technology was positive or negative and irrespective of their e-mail experience, participants focused on benefits rather than costs. For traditional media, both costs and benefits were important. Results contradict the common belief that barriers such as usability problems determine whether older people use new technology and indicate the decisive role of perceived benefits for successful innovation.” (Melenhorst, Rogers, Bouwhuis, 2006)

Rationale for Inclusion in Literature Review:

This research study presents findings that specifically suggest motivational factors do influence older adults to adopt technology. Although the study is limited in scope to e-mail technologies, it is none-the-less appropriate; it offers empirical study and data analysis of various motivational factors that influence adoption of technology.

Values for validity and reliability are premised on earlier research by the author.  Specifically, values for validity and reliability come from the examination of statistical differences between groups and between goals, through repeated measures of multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs).

The study is appropriate for ethnically diverse, independently living male and female older adults in the age range from 65 to 80.

APA Citation:

Melenhorst, A., Bouwhuis, D., (2004). When do older adults consider the internet? An exploratory study of benefit perception.  Gerontechjournal, Vol. 3, No. 2. (2004), pp. 90-101.

Summary:

“Perceptions and experiences of both usability and usefulness can motivate or discourage older adults to use the internet. The present study explores older adults’ perceptions of internet usefulness, or benefit. Thirty older internet users and non-users aged 60-74 years evaluated traditional media and internet applications for different communication purposes in their everyday lives. The participants were divided into three groups with different levels of experience. Both the amount of internet experience and the goal of the communication seemed to have affected their judgments. Experienced users valued internet applications more highly than less- and non-experienced users, in general. However, both users and non-users of the internet mentioned merits of the internet depending on the goal of the communication and the establishment of the medium in one’s social environment. The goal-dependent differentiation of media evaluations within each of the three groups suggested a benefit-driven approach of media by older adults.” (Melenhorst, Bouwhuis, 2004)

Rationale for Inclusion in Literature Review:

This (unpublished) research study operates from the expectation “that participants would appreciate the internet to a different extent for different goals” (Melenhorst, Bouwhuis, 2004), a direct connection to the question of motivational influences on the adoption of technology among older adults. Also, the findings of this dissertation underlie premises presented in other resources utilized in the present literature review.

Values for validity and reliability come from the examination of statistical differences between groups and between goals, through repeated measures of multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs).

The study is appropriate for ethnically diverse, independently living male and female older adults in the age range from 65 to 75.

APA Citation:

Hanson, V.L., (2010). Influencing technology adoption by older adults. Interacting with Computers, Vol. 22. No. 6. (November 2010), pp. 502-509.

Summary:

“With the advent of a digital economy, an emphasis on digital products and services has emerged. Those who are not using current technologies will become excluded, however, from this revolution. Older adults represent one such group in danger of Exclusion. In some cases, older adults have been disinterested in new technologies. In other cases, however, the technologies fail to take into consideration the strengths and weaknesses of older users that would promote this usability. This paper examines components of information search by younger and older adults. These are considered in terms of long-term implications of designing for older users, with current problems viewed as foreshadowing future trends.” (Hanson, 2010)

Rationale for Inclusion in Literature Review:

This research paper connects directly to the question of design strategies proscribed by motivational factors leading to successful adoption of technology among older adults by virtue of its interest in long-term implications of designing for older users.

Values for validity and reliability come from an analysis of variance (ANOVA).

The study is appropriate for ethnically diverse, independently living male and female older adults over 60 and utilizes a control group of younger adults between 18 and 30.

APA Citation:

Ng, Chi-hung., (2008). Motivation among older adults in learning computer technologies: A grounded model. EducationalGerontology, Vol. 34, No. 1 (2008), pp. 1-14.

Summary:

“Based on a sociocultural perspective, this study investigated the learning experiences of a selected group of older adults learning computing technologies at a social center in Hong Kong. Data generated from in-depth interviews were used to develop a model of evolving motivation that explains how this group of ‘‘anxious novices’’ had gradually developed into ‘‘motivated experts’’ capable of showcasing their computing achievement to the public. The model highlights the significance of social supports derived from various social contexts in helping older adults make sense of their learning and develop lasting interest in computing technologies.” (Ng, 2008)

Rationale for Inclusion in Literature Review:

This literature review directly connects to the question of motivational influences on the adoption of technology among older adults.

This is not a research study but a research review; as such, values for validity and reliability are not represented.

The study is appropriate for ethnically diverse, independently living male and female older adults in the age range from 65 to 75.

 References:

Hanson, V.L., (2010). Influencing technology adoption by older adults. Interacting with Computers, Vol. 22. No. 6. (November 2010), pp. 502-509.

Melenhorst, A., Bouwhuis, D., (2004). When do older adults consider the internet? An exploratory study of benefit perception. Gerontechjournal, Vol. 3, No. 2. (2004), pp. 90-101.

Melenhorst, A.S., Rogers, W.A., Bouwhuis, D.G., (2006). Older Adults’ Motivated Choice for Technological Innovation: Evidence for Benefit-Driven Selectivity. Psychology and Aging, Vol. 21, No. 1. (March 2006), pp. 190-195.

Ng, Chi-hung., (2008). Motivation among older adults in learning computer technologies: A grounded model. Educational Gerontology, Vol. 34, No. 1 (2008), pp. 1-14.

Wagner, N., Hassanein, K., Head, M., (2010). Computer use by older adults: A multi-disciplinary review. Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 26, No. 5. (22 September 2010), pp. 870-882.